• During the years following 1815, the fear of repression drove many liberal-nationalists underground.

• Secret societies sprang up in many European states to train revolutionaries and spread their ideas.

• Most of these revolutionaries saw the creation of nation-states as an essential part of this struggle for freedom.

• The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini was the member of the secret society of the Carbonari. He opposed monarchical form and fought for Liberty and freedom.

• Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single united republic within a wider alliance of nations.

• Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republic frightened the conservatives. Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.

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Assertion Reason Questions for Class 10 Science Term 2 Exam